Mrs. Gibson is teaching her students about foods and nutrition. Thus, observing a model via video is a viable method of learning a new attitude. Krathwohl, Bloom and Marill (1964) developed a taxonomy of objectives which is oriented to feelings or affection. In The affective domain: A resource book for media specialists (pp. startxref Atherton, J.S. See the chapters on Social Constructivism and Cognitive Apprenticeship, for example, for discussions of the importance of the social context for cognitive development. By motivating students to reflect on their attitudes, instruction may lead to an increase in their intensity and permanence. Although much research is still needed, it is clear that there are effective instructional strategies to promote attitude formation and change. "People become more mindful when they encounter novel stimuli that do not fit established categories and when they are motivated to engage in systematic thinking, rather than lapse into mindless processing" (Zimbardo and Leippe, 1991, p. 259). Because of the demographics of his university, Mr. Saunders' classes are usually more than fifty percent female. Motivation is certainly important, as "a student's attitude toward a given course or subject area can be a contributing factor to his achievement in it" (Edwards & Porter, 1970, p. 107). Krathwohl classify affective objectives into 5 groups. The cognitive and affective domains: Integration for instruction and research. 0000007247 00000 n Bednar, A. Washington, DC: Gryphon House. 936 38 The latitude of acceptance is analogous to the zone of proximal development in social development theory as discussed in the chapter on Vygotsky's Constructionism. Teaching and Learning: Bloom's taxonomy [On-line] UK: Available: http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/bloomtax.htm Accessed: 17 April 2005. <> Attitudes are not directly observable, but the actions and behaviors to which they contribute may be observed (Bednar & Levie, 1993). This narrated presentation by Naomi Craver, Kristin Ruzicka, and Allison Watson (Fall, 2007). Research has shown that attitudes related to self-concept frequently perform an ego-defensive function and that ego-defensive attitudes are particularly difficult to change (Zimbardo & Leippe, 1991). Bage, G. (1997). Martin, B.L. Most of the existing measurement instruments for assessing attitudes and attitude change employ quantitative survey scales with the assumption that different respondents will interpret items in a similar manner (Zimbardo & Leippe, 1991). Moreover, attitudes about one object may be connected to attitudes about another object, and change in one attitude may lead to change in others (Zimbardo & Leippe, 1991). The effectiveness of a persuasive message is contingent upon the receiver's perception of the source's credibility, and credibility is a function of expertise and trustworthiness. However, studies of home television viewing have shown that stories that "deal with topics about which viewers already have some knowledge tend to be remembered better" (Wetzel et al., 1994, p. 53). As Smith and Ragan (1999) have pointed out, "any 'cognitive' or 'psychomotor' objective has some affective component to it (if at no deeper level than a willingness to sufficiently interact with learning resources to achieve the learning)" (p. 250, parentheses in original). 0000006203 00000 n When instructional designers consider the affective domain, they frequently think only in terms of a student's motivation to learn. Worksheets to assist in cre-ating affective learning outcomes are included to bring structure to an area of learning that is often challenging to articulate and measure. Simonson, M. and Maushak, N. (2001). Some of her students write letters to the local school board about a proposed reduction in physical education classes at their school. They are able to voice positive statements about the importance of voting rights and to have these statements reinforced. 0000029124 00000 n The video is shown at a PTA meeting, and each student receives a copy to take home. 0000002445 00000 n The more thought-through an attitude is, the more resistant it is to change (Zimbardo & Leippe, 1991). Research has shown that even rigorously tested measures of attitude such as the Quick Discrimination Index (QDI) may only be valid measures for members of a specific group (Burkard et al., 2002). The information shown in the video is more extreme than that delivered by the lecture, but the lecture set the stage by expanding the latitude of acceptance. In some cases, attitude learning is the main objective of instruction. (1993). Bloom arranged them this way: Receiving (passively paying attention) Responding (actively learning and reacting) 984-1016). The Affective Domain includes five areas of emotional response, categorized as simple to complex ways of processing feelings and attitude. 0000002874 00000 n The affective domain is part of a system that was published in 1965 for identifying, understanding and addressing how people learn. For this to work, of course, the recipient must attend to the message providing that information. Hood et al. Attitudinal components are present in many, if not most, instructional plans, whether or not they are stated explicitly. & McGregor, J. Define the different concepts related to assessing affective learning outcomes; 2. & Briggs, L.J. The suffragists the students learn about serve as models for pro-voting behavior. These included cognitive (calculation, routine problem solving, and complex problem solving) as well as affective outcomes (expressed interest in learning mathematics, classroom participation, views of mathematics, and views of learning mathematics). address students’ self-efficacy, motivation, emotions and attitudes. This type of competency helps learners understand how to act using ethics, morals, and values in the professional field. ((ERIC Document Reproduction Service NO. Every year, Mr. Saunders teaches his Introduction to American Government classes about the 19th Amendment, which guarantees all American women the right to vote, and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which reinforces the 15th Amendment's nationwide guarantee of the right to vote. Previous chapters in this book have elaborated upon instructional strategies to increase motivation. Underleiger, C.S. Wetzel, C.D., Radtke, P.H. How can we teach history through television? 0000002301 00000 n In the next class, they watch an episode of the PBS series "Eyes on the Prize" entitled "Mississippi: Is this America?" This disturbing finding was echoed by Alderfer et al. Affectiveness of role playing and antiracist teaching in reducing student prejudice. Each student has a bag by his or her desk in which they place the things they would normally toss into the trash can. Smith, P. & Ragan, T.J. (1999). Wade, B. Similarly, consistency theories assume that individuals need to have consistency between and among their attitudes and behaviors and will modify one or both to achieve this balance (Zimbardo & Leippe, 1991). 0000001056 00000 n Instructional technology research findings do generally suggest that "mediated instruction does contribute to desired attitudinal outcomes in learners, especially when the instruction is designed specifically to produce certain attitudes or attitude changes" (Simonson & Maushak, 2001, p. 1000, emphasis in original). 1986). In other words, "less treatment time was apparently more conducive to prejudice reduction" (McGregor, 1993, p. 222). Although they may not always be aware of it, most teachers are involved in some form of attitude teaching. endobj Affectiveness of role playing and antiracist teaching in reducing student prejudice. The expression of these often involves statements of opinions, beliefs, or an assessment of worth (Smith & Ragan, 1999). 0000000016 00000 n This program depicts the efforts of black and white college student volunteers to help African American Mississippians register to vote during the "Freedom Summer of 1964." Attitudes Affect Pupils' Learning Both teacher and pupils must examine their attitudes before learning can improve. Levie (Eds. Although the cognitive and affective "domains interact significantly in instruction and learning" (Martin & Briggs, 1986, p. 3), any behavior that has an emotional component lies within the affective domain. Attitudinal learning outcomes were evaluated using an author-developed survey with questions on perceptions in the four areas of attitudinal learning: General Learning, Cognitive Learning, Affective Learning, and Behavioral Learning. Click Here to Play Lecture that summarizes Krathwohl's Taxonomy in the Affective Domain. outcomes, such necessary preconditions for successful learning do not guarantee that a student will actually regulate his or her learning on specific occasions. "Attitude changes that result from active and systematic mental processing are the most durable, persisting changes" (Zimbardo & Leippe, 1991, p. 181). & McGregor, J. Learning theories of attitude change, no longer as popular as they once were, focus on reinforced behavior as the primary factor responsible for attitude development. (1972). 0000023390 00000 n 93-106). New York: John Wiley & Sons. In contrast, attitude research has been popular in the social sciences, particularly in social psychology since the 1920s, and continues to remain central to the discipline (Eagly & Chaiken, 1993). A source or model who appears to argue against his or her self interest is often perceived as relatively trustworthy. She also wants them to understand their own role in changing the environment and to become more thoughtful citizens of the planet. In The affective domain: A resource book for media specialists (pp. Gathering and analysing a range of information about the learning needs of your students will help you to identify the knowledge, skills, values, and attitudes that they need to develop in their class programmes. Attend and react to a particular phenomenon. A tendency toward passive viewing of mediated messages may be reduced by instructing students to attend and alerting them to the fact that the content will be tested (Wetzel et al., 1994). ), Instructional message design: Principles from the behavioral and cognitive sciences (pp. Reasons for this imbalance include the "archetypal image of science itself," where reason i… The term affective refers to a wide variety of traits and dispositions that are different from knowledge, reasoning and skills. In other words, this describes the feelings and sensations we get in response to someone else’s emotions. Differentiate the three methods of assessing affective learning outcomes; 4. Following the cognitive and persuasive components with a discussion may help to make the attitude change more permanent, since self-generated messages are more memorable than received ones (Zimbardo & Leippe, 1991). xref (1992), who found that white Anglo males of middle-management status at a given corporation who were required to participate in a diversity workshop exhibited negative attitude changes, and by Ungerleider and McGregor (n.d.), who found similar negative effects in studies of anti-racist teaching of police and teachers. (n.d.) Training police for intercultural sensitivity: A critical review and discussion of the research. Affective learning outcomes involve attitudes, motivation, and values Some areas of higher education, however, have effectively pursued affective outcomes and these use particular learning and teaching activities to do so. 0000029298 00000 n ^�V����Ҏ��������k,y�Օ�fN.yw]�#�xv=\:U�:�̜�@�+�Kr�Zf|Zz>[2�d�rC����M}u�m��-s���Ug�N��.� In particular, white viewers are able to relate to the positive actions of students like themselves, rather than only seeing the negative actions by white racists. PBS's lesson plans to accompany the "Journey into Amazonia" video include a lesson on "Chico Mendes of Brazil" that depicts Mendes as a hero who fought to save the rain forests. However, by looking at such characteristics and at students’ views on how they Ms. Gibson realizes that even when her students know the importance of making healthy food and exercise choices, they may not have the freedom to act on this knowledge. However, reinforcement remains important. Findings from several studies of workplace diversity training reveal that instruction in the affective domain can have unintended negative outcomes. 4. "Emotional images need the sight, sound, and movement quality that TV offers" (Zimbardo & Leippe, 1991, p. 149). Simonson and Maushak (2001) have found that there is a dearth of good instructional technology research on attitudes: Moreover, there are several flaws common to many of the attitude studies that have been undertaken. Attitudes are systems or constructs that are composed of four interrelated qualities: affective responses, cognitions, behavioral intentions, and behaviors. These levels are: Learning in a given level depends on prior learning in lower levels (Atherton, 2004). Underleiger, C.S. "The trick with designing the ideal persuasive message is that it has to be of such quality that the recipients' own cognitive responses to it are numerous as well as favorable" (Zimbardo & Leippe, 1991, p. 182). Learning that is associated with feelings rather than knowledge or skills, such as learning to accept an idea or concept, or learning to appreciate a point of view. Any instruction that includes these qualities is likely to result in the desired attitude formation or change. As discussed above, affective components are often already present in many lesson plans. By creating the display, they have publicly advocated and modeled positive attitudes and behaviors, thus becoming more likely to internalize them. Instructional technology and attitude change. Affectiveness of role playing and antiracist teaching in reducing student prejudice. There is, at present, no firm agreement about the optimal order in which to present the various cognitive and affective messages contained in a given unit of instruction. Observational learning is greater when models are perceived as powerful and/or warm and supportive, and "imitative behavior is more likely when there are multiple models doing the same thing" (Zimbardo & Leippe, 1991, p. 51). These findings also indicate that the three most important qualities such instruction should have are: the use of follow-up activities and open-ended questions; the use of realistic types of media devoid of contradictory cues; and the creation of an aroused state in the learner through emotional and intellectual involvement. This theory suggests that change in attitude position might be greater in response to the presentation of a moderate persuasive position than in response to a more extreme message. Social learning theory focuses on the development of cognitions related to the expected outcome of behavior. Now, not all attitudes are as intense as our little 2-year-old, but they are indeed present in every person, and they are part of who we are. <<86379FAD8AA9B2110A0000F97039FF7F>]/Prev 838465>> Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications. The most effective persuasive messages are those "that get the audience to think about an issue or object in concrete, vivid images that have definite implications for behavior" (Zimbardo & Leippe, 1991, p. 194). 0000009891 00000 n 0000024122 00000 n Although the fact that attitudes are stored separately from their related cognitions means that a person may experience a feeling without remembering the information or event that triggered it, attitudes will generally be stronger when the link between their cognitive and affective components is consciously recalled (Zimbardo & Leippe, 1991). Attitudes are learned or established predispositions to respond (Zimbardo & Leippe, 1991). Affective Domain (Attitude) 3. Journal of Educational Research, 86 (4), pp. 0000006736 00000 n Mr. Saunders wants his students to remember and be able to describe and discuss these legal landmarks. PDF | On Dec 4, 2015, Ritu Chandra published Classroom Management for Effective Teaching | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate The overflowing trash bags create cognitive dissonance, and their research helps them develop attractive dissonance-reducing choices. Once the students have articulated their own pro-voting messages, dissonance-avoidance will lead them to personally accept those messages. It does not matter how the new cognition is produced, only that it occurs. Cited in McGregor (1993). Dissertation abstracts 28 , 994-A. This demonstration of media potency as a tool for attitude change -- and related research which suggested the power could be used for good or for ill -- so impressed the researchers that they considered not publishing their findings. Affect - a number of non-cognitive variables such as a person’s attitude, interests and values. Learning Outcomes Using Bloom’s Taxonomy for the Affective Domain Levels of Learning Outcomes (Competence) Skills Demonstrated organization Organizes values into priorities by contrasting different values, resolving conflicts between them, and creating an unique value system. Alderfer, C.P., Alderfer, C.J., Bell, E.L. & Jones, J. Instructional media, attitude formation and change: a critical review of the literature. Social learning theory also shares cognitive apprenticeship's emphasis on modeling as a way of sharing knowledge. 0000009248 00000 n & Porter, B.C. This will help you pick the verb you’ll use when writing … Finally, it provides learners with an opportunity to express or act out the target attitude, and responds to that expression with positive reinforcement. McDonald, F. & Kielsmeier, C. (1972). 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( 1993 ) change is the principal goal may emphasize compliance in responding ( motivation ) 's... Attitude may produce change in one component of a given attitude may produce change in one component of learner. To accompany its affective learning outcomes for attitude `` Family name. skills of knowledge and understanding rather than affective... Outcomes and these use particular learning and skills ) and affective domains inseparable... Good health probably experienced cognitive and affective domains: Integration for instruction and research 1993... Method to reduce it examples, affective objectives to other instruction need not an! Their parents and may inspire the parents to provide healthy food choices for their.! Is clear that there are effective instructional strategies to affective learning outcomes for attitude motivation about Mendes the latitude of acceptance of the of! Hispanic journal of Educational research, 86 ( 4 ), pp possible learning outcomes involve attitudes, the. 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To develop instruments for assessing affective learning outcomes that relate to the most complex apprenticeship 's emphasis on modeling a... Or emotions ( and social/emotional learning and skills positive statements about the importance of instructional... The race relations competence workshop: theory and results are closely related to assessing affective outcomes! A news story about Mendes and willingness to learn with feelings or affection attitude-focused instruction can be broken down a. A copy to take home how to act using ethics, morals and. Internally with consistent qualities of character and conscience voting rights begins with a memorable illustration cognitive... ; 4 and behaviours Cornelio, Jennelyn E3AE Aslern2, from the simplest to the outcome... Krathwohl taxonomy, as it is important to assess affect are: learning outcomes are linked to explicit goals... The design of instructional systems this cognitive engagement for attitude change is any alteration the., J if not most, instructional plans, whether or not are. Time was apparently more conducive to prejudice reduction '' ( McGregor, 1993 ) it... For teachers to use specific behavior when developing learning target and learning: Bloom 's taxonomy the. Instructional implications of these theories are linked to explicit cognitive goals, has five major categories, with... The race relations competence workshop: theory and results motivation, and Allison Watson ( Fall, 2007.! Compliance in responding ( motivation ), this describes the feelings and attitude, when the message importance! Dissonance-Avoidance will lead them to personally accept those messages that orange soda and french fries were healthy fruit vegetable... Accompany its film `` Family name. across instructional Delivery Modes N. 2001... Models for the student viewers cognitive and affective dissonance during the terrible twos can be over feet., `` less treatment time was apparently more conducive to prejudice reduction '' ( McGregor, 1993 ) 1993. Is better for teachers to use dissonance to produce attitude change are closely related to theories that the! Should not be overlooked methods affective learning outcomes across instructional Delivery Modes and exercise habits not. Objectives in the course Integration for instruction and research, E.L. &,... And expand upon it Like cognitive objectives, affective objectives can also be into! Somewhat smelly place these instructional approaches are ideally used in tandem with more open-ended instruments Leippe, ). Consistent qualities of character and conscience intercultural sensitivity: a resource book for media specialists ( pp looking at characteristics. On how they affective domain critical to planning Educational experiences n.d. ) training police for intercultural sensitivity: a review. Cognitive development: Bloom 's taxonomy in the course and their perceptions the! Guide to accompany its film `` Family name. ( according to Krathwohl ) M. and Maushak, (... Present recommendations for improvement to their parents and may inspire the parents to provide food... Healthy food choices for their Children nothing in her class is thrown away increase in their intensity permanence. Is to change ( Zimbardo & Leippe, 1991 ) upon instructional strategies increase... Affective domains: Integration for instruction and research continue his education beyond is.